Friday, February 20, 2015

Need Analysis Books, Papers and Links

This list was originally started in 2002 when I moderated yahoo TRDEV .
This list is by no means complete, but it is a starting point.
  • Needs Assessment is the gathering of information and processes to define the problems and issues regarding a potential training or learning situation.
  • Needs Analysis is what you do to the information to organize, define and summarize the problem and solutions.
  • Altschuld, James W.; Witkin, Belle Ruth (1999);From Needs Assessment to Action : Transforming Needs into Solution Strategies ISBN: 076190932X Sage
  • Barbazette, Jean (2006) Training Needs Assessment: Methods, Tools, and Techniques (Skilled Trainer) Pfeiffer ISBN-10: 0787975257
  • Barksdale, Susan; Lund, Teri (2001)  Rapid Needs analysis (The Workbook Series) ASTD Learning and Performance ISBN: 1562862979 ASTD
  • Burton, J. K., & Merrill, P. F. (1991). Needs assessment: Goals, Needs and Priorities. In L. J. Briggs, K. L. Gustafson, & Tillman, M. H. (Eds.), Instructional design principles and applications (pp. 17-43). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
  • Gibson, Brenda; Bartram, Sharon; Gower, Aldershot, (1995) Training Needs Analysis Toolkit original version *Revised edition 0874254973; Bk&Dk edition (January 1, 2000)
  • Gilley, Jerry W. ; Gilley, Ann Maycunich; (2002)  Strategically Integrated HRD: A Six-Step Approach to Creating Results-Driven Programs Basic Books Group; 2nd edition ISBN: 0738207624 
  • Gupta, Kavita (1998) A Practical Guide to Needs Assessment Pfeiffer; Bk&Disk edition  ISBN: 0787939889
  • Kaufman, Roger. (1998)  Strategic Thinking: A Guide to Identifying and Solving Problems -Revised. Arlington, VA. & Washington, D.C  Jointly published by the American Society for Training & Development and the International Society for Performance Improvement.
  • Kaufman, R. (2000). Mega Planning: Practical Tools for Organizational Success.  Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications. ISBN-10: 0761913254
  • Kaufman, Roger; Oakley-Browne, Hugh; Watkins, Ryan; Leigh, Doug; (2003)Strategic Planning For Success: Aligning People, Performance, and Payoff  Jossey-Bass 0-7879-6503-0
  • Kaufman, Roger (1982) Identifying and Solving Problems: A System Approach Pfeiffer & Co; 3rd edition ISBN-10: 0883900505 (Paperback)
  • Kaufman, Roger and English, Fenwick W. (Hardcover - May 1978)  Needs Assessment: Concept and Application Educational Technology Publications 0877781303- out of print
  • McArdle, Geri Ph.D. (1998) Conducting a Needs Analysis. Crisp Publications ISBN # 1-56052-423-5
  • McConnell, John, H. (2003)  How to Identify Your Organization's Training Needs: A Practical Guide to Needs Analysis  American Management Association; Bk&CD-Rom ISBN: 0814407102
  • Rossett, Allison (1987) Training Needs Assessment :Techniques in Training and Performance Educational Technology Publications ISBN: 0877781958 
  • Rothwell, William and Kazanas, H.C. (2008) Mastering the Instructional Design Process: A Systematic Approach 4th Edition (Hardcover) Pfeiffer; ISBN-10: 0787996467
  • Russo, Cat ( 2001) Train the Trainer, Volume 2 : Instructional Design & Implementation. ASTD American Society for Training & Development ISBN: 1562862790
  • Tobey, Deborah (2005) Needs Assessment Basics (ASTD Training Basics) (Paperback)  ASTD Press  ISBN-10: 1562863878
  • Zemke, Ron and Kramlinger, Thomas (May 1982) Figuring Things Out: A Trainers Guide to Needs and Task Analysis Basic Books ISBN-10: 0201090988
  • Kaufman, R. (1988). Needs Assessment: A menu. Educational technology, 28, (7) 21-22
  • McClelland, S. B. (1994a) Training needs assessment data-gathering methods: Part 1, survey questionnaires. Journal of European Industrial Training, 18(1), 22-26.
  • McClelland, S. B. (1994b) Training needs assessment data-gathering methods: Part 2, individual interviews. Journal of European Industrial Training, 18(2), 27-31.
  • McClelland, S. B. (1994c) Training needs assessment data-gathering methods: Part 3, focus groups. Journal of European Industrial Training, 18(3), 29-32.
  • McClelland, S. B. (1994d) Training needs assessment data-gathering methods: Part 4, on-site observations. Journal of European Industrial Training, 18(5), 4-7.
  • Nickols, Fred

Sunday, March 24, 2013

Systemic change- Change management- Instructional design Resources

 Educause resources- more available

ERIC models

ERIC - organizational

ERIC -change strategies

ERIC -pm

change mgmt "templates"--always need adapting,or.r_qf.&cad=b&sei=87NPUb6JL8T5ygHL_YGYCw

change management instructional design,or.r_qf.&fp=d10a7abd516c93e&biw=1760&bih=898

Saturday, December 08, 2012

Basic Intro Badge

An Intro badge created with PPT and a QR code generator.

Open Source Graphics Editing/Design Programs

Open Source Graphics Editing/Design Programs

 Cnet- can download the former google sketchup here.

 Open Office

Inkscape website with tutorials/doc

Serif Starter products|&filterName=platform=Windows|

misc list including Scribus and Gimp

Mac Freeware

Sunday, October 07, 2012

Zaid has a bunch of taxonomies that put modern tools/apps into a proposed use based on the level of Bloom.

Thursday, February 09, 2012

Writing an Ebook
Table of Contents

This is a work in progress but I wanted to get it started. Each chapter will become a separate post when finished.

Chapter 1 Ebooks definition
Digital formatted book that may include audio, text and multimedia with links to websites if the reader has browser capability.

Ebook Primer Educause

  1. Text-
  2. Audio-
    Audio books or "books on cd" have been around for a long time, but the audio books most related to mobile learning are those designed for reader users who have a problem with print. The Daisy format has been designed for those users and stands for  "Digital Accessible Information System" or Digital Talking Book.
    The books are based upon the Daisy Standards and will support both text to speech and Braille output content in a mixed media approach for various readers and tablets.
    Available Daisy formatted books can be found here as well as other sites listed on the Daisy site. Bookshare offers them free for qualifying students.
The ASB has some public domain books that you can download and use with a public reader.
Chapter 2 Standards 
Epub 2(current) and 3(coming) standard

                   Chapter 3  Ebook readers and formats

CBZ, CBR, CBC, CHM, EPUB, FB2, HTML, LIT, LRF, MOBI, ODT, PDF, PRC**, PDB, PML, RB, RTF, TCR, TXT , Amazon, Bnoble, other proprietarial online epub reader

                  Chapter 4  Writing process
Ultimately, an ePub file is merely a zip file consisting of XHTML and XML metadata, so it is possible to create one "by hand" yourself. A good tutorial for this can be found at
CreateSpace- Tools

                        Chapter 5 Ebook Authoring Software
  1. Feedbooks ( You can log into Feedbooks and create your own content, which will be made available in ePub, as well as other formats like PDF and Kindle.
  2. ePub Tools ( Command-line tools suitable for batch processing and integration into toolchains. Includes tools for conversion from Word, RTF, DocBook, TEI, and FictionBook.
  3. Rome?- multimedia output? convertible?
  4. eCub (  - "a simple to use EPUB and MobiPocket ebook creator"
  5. Sigil ( - Multi-platform WYSIWYG ebook editor. It is designed to edit books in ePub format. 
  6. Plucker HTML accumulator
  • yWriter This is a free novel-writing application that you can use to write your next story.- breaks your novel into chapters and scenes For PC.
  1. Edupub
  2. Wordpress Blog to epub plugin
  3. FlatWorld
  4. Web page to ebook cloud

Chapter 6 Publishing and ISBN process

Chapter 7 Conversion software commercial- exe format

                             Chapter 8 Reader Software
  1. Android reader  Comparison
  1. Aldiko
  2. Firefox plug in
  3. Mobipocket
  4. KOBO
  5. Adobe
  6. Kindle apps
  7. Sony
  8. plucker

                      Chapter 9 Examples of Ebooks and Uses

Memory Aids -
Action planning forms
Possible inclusion of Qr
JIT instructions
Link Resources
Self contained modules
  Chapter 10 Free Ebooks

  1. computer science/math

Free Audio Books

Not Free

Wednesday, January 25, 2012

Types of Video Use

Different video/types/technology
Remember that most of the video we are talking about here is not exclusively visual, but also includes an auditory componenet.
  1. 2-way videoconferencing
  2. Satellite (1-way videoconf.)
  3. Desktop  videoconferencing      
  4. Web-based  resources (w/plug-ins) pc accessible
  5. Software formats such as fla, wmv       
  6. Chats webcams- telephony 
  7. Streaming  video
  8. Video disc/CD/DVD
  9. Vcr/camera  playback   
  10. Mobile video- ebooks
  11. Gaming videos
  12. Video  textbooks-
  13. Podcasting video-
  14. Smart phones /tablet with presentationapps
  15. Smart phones/tablets used as recorders
  16. Lecture  capture/recordings-
  17. Scripted and filmed video-
  18. Student Led Broadcasts- equipment?
  19. SIP Trunking
  20. White board recordings

Friday, December 31, 2010

HTML 5, CSS and JQuery

A few weeks ago, a member of the Instructional Technology Forum asked about HTML 5 vs Flash and I have been on a hunt ever since. I have been trying to upgrade my HTML skills, which were getting a little rusty.

Along the way I ran into the jquery library and I intend to work alot with it in the next year.
JQuery Project
JQuery Library
JQuery Mobile

I have some links to demo projects, comments etc:
JQuery educational app
45 application uses
Not quite there-api

Monday, August 23, 2010

SALT- Call for Papers

New Learning Technologies Conference
Walt Disney World Swan and Dolphin
Orlando, Florida
February 23-25, 2011

The details for the call for papers can be found here:

Wednesday, October 14, 2009

Gear ID


  • Content Hierarchy
  • Task Hierarchy and Sequence
  • Information Processing Analysis
  • Drive control=goals and Objectives
  • Strategies
  • Media/Method
  • Learner Requirements/Conditions
  • Level and Type of Demonstration
  • Repeat/Expand/Alternatives/Elevate

Tuesday, August 11, 2009

Visual Literacy and Visualization

Visual literacy is part of the art of communication and design. When designing for any learning event, the ability to communicate the content and interpret it are vital to understanding.

The following links will provide a start for visual literacy study.

There are more maps here:
including the page by Chris the extracts each one with a show/hide

and the papers:

As long as you are looking at visual lit, there is an ivla
which has a taxonomy and bibliography listed

lots here:

Saturday, August 08, 2009

Visual Literacy and Visualization

The Visual Literacy org site has a periodic table of visualization methods:
(use Mouseover)

Shown single method by using a show/hide link done by Chris Wallace:

by category

Other visual literacy maps

Visual Literacy Papers

Friday, May 22, 2009

Basic Blog Info

The following links have basic info on blogging for the newbie:

Biological Learning Issues

As an ID, ISD or LISS, one of the areas that all learning designers need to address are the new discoveries in brain research that influence the cognitive learning processes. It is one of the areas that needs to be incorporated into all ID or LISS research studies in the future.

Learning, psychological and systems theories are theories, but actual physiological research has shown some of them to be relevant and this needs to be incorporated into all planning for learning activities.

This blog will address LISS activities in all phases, including media attributes, as well as the actual technological issues of using any new technology. It is vital to the future of ID that technology use be separated from the use of the term educational technology or instructional technology. AECT has changed names for the group in previous years and definitions of educational technology and instructional technology. However, the government has demoted the definition back to the use of technology in education with its NCLB act and academia has confused the terms for years. Its time to define new terms and new ideas that separate the processes, theories and ideals of learning experience design from the AV history which overshadows its changes during the last 25 years. As a starting point, I am going to call myself a LISS instead of an ID and see if anyone continues to confuse me with a button pushing, mouse clicking, PowerPoint using computer nerd that can show some one how to use the LCMS system to upload their antiquated PPT slides to the web.

Instructional Technology or Educational Technology is not computers, it is not media. Those institutions which continue to use the term that way need to read the definitions of AECT over the last 40 years.

Scientific American has released a new study about a specific region in the brain that is essential to the ability to read.

Other articles and links with various theories and ideas.
Cognitive Behavior management
The Official Psychology Website of Bangkok Patana School

Learning there really such a thing? More on this later..
Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning : A systematic and critical review

Learning Design Strategy, Instructional Design Strategy, Teaching Strategy, Media Delivery Strategy

Learning Design Strategy, Instructional Design Strategy, Teaching Strategy, Media Delivery Strategy

I haven't had time to do much here lately. The problem that I see is that there seems to be a confusion about what differentiates a learning design strategy from a learning delivery medium. Too often it seems people tend to confuse the two.

I have been looking at the term "instructional strategies" and then trying to find something that defines the characteristics of an instructional strategy vs the characteristics of the media delivery system. I have been less than satisfied with what I have found in the books and research papers.

Everyone talks about instructional strategies, but the actual process of defining the strategy and the composition of the strategies are nebulous sometimes. I know about designing for rules, procedures, etc., but the application of strategies in other than Gagne's 9 events doesn't appear to be well defined, especially for different domains.

Lots of folks appear to be using the term learning strategy, especially the military and related vendors, but a "learning strategy" is what the learner uses to organize information, procedures etc, to learn. That is not the same as an instructional strategy and a teaching/facilitation strategy. I have also seen a lot of "strategies" listed, that are more or less activities, not strategies. Some strategies can be used by both the learner as a learning method and the instructional brainstorming.

I went to the library and pulled out a bunch of "teaching" strategy books to see what they say. Teaching strategy.. to me-- is the on site application of the instructional strategy and being on the spot to use it. The instructional strategy should be the needs, content definition, circumstances and learners evaluated and integrated, a selection of delivery mode and learning mode that best fits the learners, content and circumstances, lesson plans, media if needed, delivery process, assessment and re-instruction/learning.. if necessary... all based on the objective outcome. Its more than just presenting content by direct instruction.

Where I am having the most difficulty is defining the difference in some of the terms that can be used in different ways. Ex..role playing is a strategy, but it is also a delivery mode, so at what point does it cease to be the strategy (what is included in the strategy characteristics?) and become just an activity/delivery mode?

Out of curiosity, I looked up "instructional strategy" in the old AECT glossary of terms from 1979 (newest one that they had in the library)- pg 76 it says:

"The overall approach to instruction to be incorporated in the instructional system or instructional product; it includes the types of system operation, format, stimuli, responses, feedback, generalities, instances, difficulty, mathmagenic information, approach, presentation-organization, sequence, scope, size of step, and pacing to be used."

I did not find any definition of what they meant by "system operation" when they wrote that glossary. "Format" means the materials medium and organization of the content.

So essentially, what the old one is saying is that a strategy has (Macro and Micro):

1. system operation-
2. format
3. stimuli
4. responses
5. feedback
6. generalities
7. instances
8. difficulty
9. mathmagenic information
10. approach
11. presentation-organization
12. sequence
13. scope
14. size of step
15. and pacing

AND what is missing..assessment for understanding and learning goals, which I did not see in this definition. That should have been included. There is no indication of whether this was supposed to have been based on a descriptive or prescriptive process.

Thursday, July 26, 2007

Technology Issues and Design Issues

One of the many issues with the term "instructional technology" is that people confuse "instructional technology" or "educational technology" with "technology for education" tools at various times during the last 80 years such as computers, television, video, radio, and overhead transparencies .

Instructional technology is the systematic design of learning situations, including instruction, delivery modes/mediums, environmental needs and modality concerns, evaluation. The design of the instruction includes the correct choice of a delivery medium, but the medium became the focus by those outside of the profession and the confusion become dominant.

This blog will, as stated earlier, be concerned with the actual uses and functioning of tools for media/modes, but consideration will be given to the characteristics of the tool that make it applicable to a learning situation, learning situation design and why. The term "instructional technology" will NOT be used when referring to these tools.

Tech Tour Year begins in August 2007 and will consider new tools, software and their possible uses such as:

Wikis in several forms
Design Software for Documents
Graphics Design Software
Web Design Software
Authoring systems
Content Management Systems
Web 2.0 applications
Open Source and Free software options

Tuesday, April 25, 2006

Technology Issues and Design Issues

The government has increased the problem of confusing "technology use in education" with educational technology or instructional technology. This blog will focus on the technical issues of dealing with technology and "how to do it".... with some theory of course! :)

Sunday, February 19, 2006

Saturday, December 31, 2005

Base Camp

I have been behind in keeping up with the blogging and video blogging technology that has become available. This last year there was a lot of talk about using the technology for training and educational purposes. Using new technology always seems to be hard for some people to accept and the costs can be prohibitive for users, so I waited for the "kinks" to unravel. New technology can become another hill in the mountain range of learning (both for skills training and knowledge development)! I usually love my computer technology, but it is not and should not be the main focus. The outcome is what matters and sometimes "low-tech" is just as effective.

So...this is the Base Camp.

The definition for base camp is found at

It defines Base Camp as a place to " provide the starting point for a multiple day or week assault on climbing a mountain. Base camp is used to store supplies that are carried to camps higher up on the mountain."

The base camp will be stocked with basic information and resources on learning how to use the technologies, which are always changing! The technology will be used to apply current learning and instructional design knowledge in constructive, practical methods. When that has been achieved, an advanced base camp will be developed for LID applications..or so goes the dream!